Jewish survivors of the Holocaust
Balogh, Magda (1 of 4) The Living Memory of the Jewish Community
The British Library Board acknowledges the intellectual property rights of those named as contributors to this recording and the rights of those not identified.
Legal and ethical usage »
Refugee from Nazi Europe
Is part of (Collection)
The Living Memory of the Jewish Community
Balogh, Magda, 1909- (speaker, female)
Raynor, Carolle (speaker, female)
Part 1: Birth: Austro-Hungaria/Transylvania. Parents Hungarians. One older sister. School: Budapest. Mother died at nine years old, 19l8. Dr Balogh could not remember a lot about grandparents. Moved to Budapest l9l3 for work. Father's occupation in insurance. No other family in Budapest. Friends: parents had many friends. Housekeeper employed. Living quarters: flat in nice area (residential). World War I, father officer in army. Education: ordinary school - state school - secular, middle class, high percentage of Jewish children - no anti-semitism in lower school. Observance: not very observant. Did not observe Sabbath. Observed Yom Kippur, high holy days. Friends: mostly Jewish. Anti-semitism more in higher school. Hobbies: swimming (as children). Holidays with parents in the summer, to seaside or to Austrian mountains. Parents involved with their children. Tried to protect her because of marking on face. Attended high school age l0. Mother died then, leaving her and elder sister. Father was a regular presence. Strong relationship in family. Father worked in bank. Socially went out frequently; coffee houses, opera, theatre. Popular with women. Left school at l8. Wanted to be a pharmacist. Worked with a pharmacist for one year. Hungarian universities barred to Jews. Able to attend university in Austria. Sister married in l930 and in l932 they went to Amsterdam, Holland. Social life: friends, opera, concerts. Taken by father to concerts sometimes. Most friends Jewish. They did not attend clubs. No boyfriends. Secondary school: no anti-semitism. In the country met some anti-semitism staying with a Jewish family. During 'White Terror' wife, who was a communist, was taken by soldiers who interrogated her and beat her. Attacked because communist and Jewish 'White Terror'. Went to Austria to university - Nazi regime built up to her final year in l933. She was used to Fascism in Hungary. Jews did not speak to non-Jews. Felt Jews treated differently. Burschenschaft (Fascist student groups) who had duels. Jewish students kept to themselves. l933 doctorate completed. Returned to Hungary. Sister/brother-in-law in Holland - brother-in-law worked in Amsterdam bank. Dr Balogh noticed rise in anti-semitism. Witnessed certain incidents. Attacks on Jews in the street, beaten and sometimes killed. Able to read about rise of Nazism/Hitler in Germany. Did not believe it would reach Hungary. On return from university worked in an office and laboratory - wine experiments. Worked here for three years. l938 - Jewish law forbidding Jews to work (Hungarian Fascist government). Horoghereshtes (Hungarian Nazi Party). Leader: Szalessi. Father had his own banking office. In l938 father left Hungary (as Dr Balogh had a boyfriend at this period) and went to Switzerland. Father became ill in Switzerland. Sister took him to Holland.