Jewish survivors of the Holocaust
Reifer, Shmuel (8 of 18) The Living Memory of the Jewish Community
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The Living Memory of the Jewish Community
Reifer, Shmuel, 1920- (speaker, male)
Gould, David (speaker, male)
Nazis take his mother and threaten to send her to Shaemberg camp; sister volunteers in her stead. April 1942, Nazis round up all Jews with criminal records; gallows built in town, followed by public execution of 7 Jews. 30 May 1942, all Jews rounded up in central square; town elder Moishe Merin forced to select 3,000 people for deportation to Auschwitz; Merin told remaining townsfolk they had been taken to Lodz. 8 July, another round-up.
Interviewee's note: Born in Chrzanow, between Krakow and Katowice in Poland. Family history; timber trade; very orthodox Jewish community. Discusses simultaneous rise of Hitler and pogroms in Poland. Hid from Nazis on invasion of Poland; 132 neighbours massacred in local sports field. Lived in Chrzanow 'ghetto' until 1943, until Nazi deportations necessitated escape with father and brother to Sosnowice; father bribed SS guard to get sent as labourers to local farm. Winter 1943, Nazis begin liquidation of small labour camps and farms; sent to IG Farben plant in Blechammer, then railway in Reichenbach, then Krupps factory in Marskadt. 1944, sent to Gorlitz camp and then Zittau; describes life in both camps. 1945, Red Army liberates camp. After liberation found surviving family and stayed in Poland until 1949 and then moved to Switzerland; met wife there, and moved with her to Stamford Hill in London, working in book trade.